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Martin Baumgarten

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About Martin Baumgarten

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    Plattsburgh, New York U.S.A.
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    Nizo, Beaulieu, Sankyo, Canon, Nikon, Bolex, Leicina, GAF, Chinon, Revue, Porst, Bauer, Yaschica, Argus, Revere, Kodak
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    Photography, Cinematography, Videography, Filmmaking, Laboratory Still & Cine Processing & other services, Camera & AV Repair, Chrysler, Air Cooled VW, Citroen, camera collecting.

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  1. Back in the day some years ago, decades really, the PX625 and similar 1.3 volt batteries powered most metering systems in many many cameras, both movie cameras and still film cameras. The adapters which have a built in resister to lower the voltage is probably the best method to use if you want to use those older cameras on Automatic. Otherwise, as Nick states.....film and processing etc is just too expensive to risk making unnecessary exposure mistakes. There will be plenty of filming errors, focus, movement, composition, lighting etc, no need to add camera technical problems to our own mistakes we make when making films. The extra voltage is slight and will not mess up the electronics of the cameras, since those are all analog electronic systems. It's also quite possible to adjust the meter's circuit potentiometer so the camera meters correctly with the 1.5 volt batteries. But, this involves opening up the control side of the camera and using a non metal tool to tweak the pot until the exposure is where it should be. Not for the faint of heart of course, and this can actually be done for a variety of the older Super 8mm cameras. There are some photos and instructions out on the Internet showing how to do this on some cameras. I don't have any links available, but search and you'll find how it's done. While not complex, you will need to to know how much to adjust for, and this will involve having a cartridge in the camera to index the meter Then using an 18% Gray Card (or white wall could work also) and comparing the exposure obtained prior to adjustment, and knowing how far off it is, thus comparing that to a known standard such as a decent hand held meter (and factoring in what the actual exposure should be with any camera prism, lens setup light loss). Anyhow, at least there are viable options to consider. I still use many older cameras that originally didn't meter for some of the modern films available now, via such adjustment methods.
  2. Those Zinc Air batteries have a fairly short life span once activated! I don't bother using them anymore unless it's in something I will use consistently before they wear down. You can use the Alkaline cells which are 1.5 volt, but only in Manual mode since in Auto Exposure they will underexpose since their voltage is higher.
  3. As Jean-Loui´╗┐s said earlier, it's tricky work reassembling these parts in cameras to make them work correctly. That being said, if the price was low enough, you could try a couple things, such as without any power to the camera, use some fine electrical contact cleaner, GENTLY on the switch areas. This will clean them hopefully and make them work correctly. Oftentimes, dust has gathered in these regions and with humidity has allowed fine tarnish to exist and cross short the switches so they don't work correctly. Do this to the main power switch, and also to the light meter test button switch on the Auto Manual knob. Carefully using dust off, you can can blow out anything lose inside, but definitely want to avoid getting crud on the lens elements or into the light meter 2 vane assembly. NIZO did change the power supply later on the Pro models so meter power ran from the Double A cells. I'm sure things would have advanced further had Super 8 remained in the mainstream and such cameras were still being made. Obviously this is not the case. Regarding the light meter functions on the NIZO 6080 and similar late model sound cameras, these are first generation CMOS chip circuit boards. When they fail, and most have, the light meter fails as so often does the manual control. There was a shop in Germany that had replacement parts, not sure if he's still in operation. As nice and fancy as these cameras are, they mostly become paper weights due to their reliance on that earlier and often failing technology. Compare that to my SANKYO XL 620, while their design has other issues, the main circuitry still seems to function well after many years. However, that being said, many also fail, as do those nice high end CANONs. The earlier electro mechnical cameras will continue to be repairable; such as the NIZO silent cameras, BEAULIEU pre 6008 series models, CHINON made 70s cameras (and all their earlier models made for PORST, REVUE, WARDS, SEARS, NORIS, BAUER, EUMIG, BOLEX and GAF). If you can't get the light meter unit working, the camera is not useless, as you can still use it in the lighting which would allow F/1.8 setting. Also, it is possible, not advised due to the delicate nature of the mechanism, but possible, to use a small piece of tape to set the galvonometer to a specific F-Stop (viewing the scale in the viewfinder) and leaving it at that. Or, you could use Neutral Density filters to adjust exposure....not idea, and certainly no Depth of Field control, but nonetheless, possible. Completely replacing the entire light meter unit from another camera requires a significant amount of disassembly and unless you have some good camera repair experience, is not recommended. Like anything though, if you got the parts camera cheap enough, and have some skill and desire, take notes, take photos etc, to help guide you back to an assembled camera. So often though, the light meter units still work, even if the meter cell is dead, the Manual Exposure Control will work, IF there is power getting to it. The knob is just a rheostat adjusting micro voltage to the vanes to adjust them. The switches are so often the problem, due to dirt, dust, light corrosion causing them to short out or not allow power to flow. Some testing with a voltage meter on the resistance setting will show if there is continuity or not. Good luck!
  4. The manual exposure function relies on the meter batteries to work. So, you can just put in most any 1.5 volt batteries that will work. For auto exposure though, they will underexpose unless there's an adjustment done to the exposure potentiometer on the circuit board...or you use the Wein or similar 1.35/1.4 volt batteries which are closest to the orginal 1.3volt PX625 cells. Later Pro NIZO camera models moved around this, but that's the way it is as tech progresses. Even so, the S-800 is an awesome camera, capable of many useful functions, and sharp images with that lens. Best of success in whatever your filming yields.
  5. While the BAUER cameras are pretty good to very good, those later ones which use an early CMOS chip for all the fancy features is similar to the one used in the NIZO higher end sound cameras....and sadly due to age now, many have failed or will fail. The advantage of the earlier NIZO S-xxx cameras is that they are basically electrical/mechanical, with the only low end electronics onboard for that Automatic B function on the later ones. You can do long exposure and time lapse quite well on the ones I stated above. The BAUER 512 is nice, and the earlier C-Royal and D-Royal models have all kinds of features as well. However....many of those due to age now may not work fully. If you find one that works fine, so be it. I still think the more servicable NIZO S-xxx might be a better option. That extra 1mm of lens width isn't enough to persuade me. IF you truly need ultra wide angle, just get one of the aux Ultra III lenses for it, or use the CANON Ultra Wide which works fine also, or any one of the other after market ultra wide lenses, quite affordable on eBay. I have a BOWER which is awesome, and it's also made under other names, same lens attachment. Or just buy a specific Super 8mm camera for ultra wide angle. The ELMO FS-20 is 4mm at its widest, but this is a plasticky sound camera, and so often many of their later plastic bodied models have running issues or don't work at all. Good luck in your choices, there sure are plenty.
  6. Hi Kenneth. It's Martin, not Michael. Anyhow, the Automatic B is a nice feature and was also offered on some of the BAUER cameras. The drawback to it, like with any automatic metering system is that as light changes, even briefly, it will adjust and thus even if you have this feature on the camera, you can turn it off and use it manually, just as on the S-480/S-481/S-560/S-561/S-800/S-801/S-801 macro/S-Pro-800/S-Pro-801. So, if you were to use the Automatic B, and a car whizzed by or some other light source, the camera would speed up it's time lapse run to adjust the exposure and then go back to where it was once the brief light source was gone. This is akin to say, panning a scene and your auto-exposure darkens the sky etc because of a brighter white cloud or skyscrapper or glint off a window or rock wall on the Grand Canyon. In manual mode, you just set the time lapse interval based on the long exposure per frame you require; and the camera can be set for an exposure as long a one minute per frame! All of the ones listed above. Unless you truly need or want the Automatic-B feature, any one of those models listed will allow a long open shutter timed exposure using the time lapse function. The fade-in/out lever is moved to the full rear position and you depress a small button to allow it to lock in place. This locks the variable shutter in the full open position. The exposure is now timed by the interval rate, which is anywhere from about 1/10th per second at the 2fps setting all the way down to a Full Minute at the 60 second interval setting. Just use an exposure guide, your own exposure knowledge, or a good hand held light meter to determine the exposure time needed for your scene. You can also set the aperture manually if you require more depth of field in the scene as well. I would set the aperture manually anyhow, since any bright stray light could cause the aperture blades to move briefly due to the light meter. I have filmed under full moon light in a courtyard using KODACHROME 40 years ago and got nice exposures. There is so much you can do with this feature, not only for a nice long exposure of a scene, but also for those nice car light streaks on highways and elsewhere. Only your imagination is the limit for many things. Good luck in your decision making and future film projects in Super 8mm!
  7. It's a junky plasticky camera. The meter sets via the cartridge notch and it's only made for the original KODACHROME 40 without Filter/ISO 25 With Filter, and EKTACHROME 160 without Filter/ISO 100 with Filter. The focus is strictly set the distance, do not rely on that silly focusmatic meter nonsense with that little silver ball. The zoom is only a 2:1 ratio, from it's 12.5mm to 25mm range at F/2.8(specs I read could be wrong, many were F/1.8 but the smaller cameras often had smaller apertures). It's only 18fps run speed, with a 180 degree shutter opening. The zoom is coupled to the drive motor, so the camera must be running in order to zoom, unless it's not working, which is common on many cameras made this way with age some coupling gives out. You can zoom manually anyway, and since it's only 2:1 range, it's not a big deal. The main thing is, does the camera work? Aim at a light source and then to a shadow area while running the camera and view through the film gate to see if the aperture is changing. If you can't see it, use a piece of white paper held at an angle or small mirror behind the film gate. Really though, this is a nothing camera, made for families back in the day to just point and shoot their home movies. There are plenty of better made cameras out there with actual features on them which you can find usually for under $50. Some are: Canon, Elmo, Chinon, GAF, Yashica. Plenty on eBay at times. It used to be common to find some at garage sales, but not so much anymore. Besides, then you have to go drive around, and take time to see if you can find anything. If you do hunt that way, always bring at least 6 fresh Double A alkaline batteries with you to test them out. If you do want to use this camera, since the Mrs got it for you, as long as it works and you use film that will work with it, you'll get decent images. Due to the meter limitations, you should be able to use: Tri-X 7266 ISO 200 (close enough), Vision Color Neg 200T (close enough), Vision Color Neg 50 (will meter at ISO 40, but close enough and the tiny bit of overexposure is fine with neg film). The new EKTACHROME 100D though will be a problem since the camera only meters at ISO 100 WITH the Filter in place, and you don't need the filter, so if it defaults to ISO 160, you'll under exposure the film, so it'll be too dark. Any frozen supplies of the old EKTACHROME 160 films that have been stored that way and in good shape will work fine. Another reason to get a camera where you have manual exposure control, or at least a bias over ride setting.
  8. The 24/25fps speed variation is nothing, you'll never know the difference either way. Two of the major significant differences, aside from the professional double system sound connection port etc....is that the Pro version still has power to the camera body when the grip is folded back, providing a lower profile and center of gravity when used on a tripod. Also the meter battery issues aren't an issue. Your choice for meter battery power are the expensive and short lived Wein zinc air PX625 1.4 volt batteries, or buying the specially made LR44 battery shell holder which has a resister built in to drop the voltage down nearer the required 1.35 volts. Or, you can just use the 1.5 volt batteries and use the camera mainly in manual mode. Once you know the meter deviation due to the batteries, you can still use the built in light meter, but then just manually adjust it compensating for the difference. Once you get used to it, it's pretty easy. In automatic mode though, you might suffer from under-exposure. As for editing it with your digital footage done on a digital camera, it's apples and oranges. You can just shoot/film with the NIZO at 18fps and save film. Once transferred it'll look just about as good as if you had shot at 24/25fps, but you'll have gained an extra 50 seconds of run time. You could always do a test and see for yourself if you'd rather shoot at 18fps or 24/25fps. Both camera models of NIZO are well made, and unless you truly need the extras on the 801 Pro version, you might do well and save money with the 801 Macro. Also, if you can find the external Braun Nizo power supply, or make one up yourself, you can power the camera that way when the handgrip is folded away, but the standard model doesn't have tripod sockets, so you'd have to make up a holder for that also. I have used both cameras, and still found the standard model to be quite steady when tripod mounted despite the socket being on the bottom of the handle. Only you can decide which is best for you, and then just sell the one you don't want....usually plenty of folks that want a NIZO out there in the Super 8 world. Hope this helps.
  9. The major difference is in the Color Developer and the film itself. Other than that, they two processes are the same, both requiring Pre-Hardner and Neutralizer and rinse, prior to actual film development. You can use a modern E-6 process done at room temperature to avoid the chemical prehardening of the film emulsion, and then just use a B&W Rapid Film Fixer with Hardener in the Final Step. You can do this also if using the 3-step E-6 formulation since the purpose is to harden the film emulsion even though it's already been fixed by the Bleach-Fix stage (BLIX). Done at room temperature in the 72F to 75F range, the emulsion will be fine. Do take care to make sure all chemistry and washes are all well within 2 degrees of range, or the unhardened film can suffer emulsion reticulation or mosaic cracking. Allow to air dry and avoid heat afterward. The E-6 formulations list times and temps for processing at room tempertures. However, if the film has NOT been freezer stored all these years, it will suffer from a serious loss of emulsion speed, contrast, and color dye shifting, so you'll have to compensate by cutting back First Developer time, often by at least half the recommended time, perhaps even more. The good thing here is that at room temperature, the development times are long, so cutting them down still gives you enough time for even development. I would do a small test first of a short piece of film, preferably shooting a Color Chart and Gray Scale Chart, to get yourself in the correct range. Don't expect miracles from such very old film though! Good luck!
  10. All very helpful tips for all concerned, thank you Simon. To avoid making a lot of work for yourself in setup testing, remember, you can use just very short lengths of film. You really only a need a foot or two, not more than three really, to make your test. Print stock is a very slow speed film, usually somewhere in the ISO 3 to ISO 6 range. You can make your test exposures in Single Frame increments, so you don't run film thru needlessly. The 16mm frame is large enough to work well for such tests and for Color Correction and Densitometry reading. Using a hand held light meter, set it for ISO/ASA 5 as a starting point, and plan to bracket your exposures in Half-Stop increments if possible, otherwise Full-Stop increments. To do even finer work in 1/3 Stop increments as well as other settings, you would either move the lamp source closer or further away from the Printer (Bolex etc, with lens removed of course). Since you'll most likely be working with either a raw light source (one in which you need to know the color temperature and also filter it for correct Tungsten balance for the Print Film Stock). If using a Color Photo Enlarger Dichroic Head, you can make adjustments, as well as use any necessary Color Balance Wratten Type Filters to bring the light source if not a Color Head, to balance with the Print Stock. Since Color Photo Enlarger Dichroic Heads use Subtractive Filtration (Magenta, Yellow & Cyan), you will need to use any combination of at least two to get the Additive Color Equivalent. Use the Color Star to guide you, and the Color Head numbers for your increment level of each filter. Keep in mind, with Subtractive Filters, if you use all three, the portion of filtration of all three just yields Neutral Density. Thus, if you were using for example, 40 Yellow, 40 Magenta and 10 Cyan, the 10 Cyan & 10 Yellow & 10 Magenta will just yield 30 ND, leaving you with 30 Y and 30 M, which would be similar to 60 Red. You'll need to keep detailed notes for yourself so you can refer to them, and make your adjustments. Not all Dichroic Head Filtration numbers are identical, so your initial setup in testing, and your notes will be vital. If not using a Dichroic Head for filtration and light source, you can use most any light source that has a known Color Temperature from which to start from. You can always make a simple Filter Holder to hold over the open lens port on your Printer (Bolex) so it's not next to your light source and thus protected from heat, if any. If using a LED light source or Flourescent light source, you'll have to Filter for those to adjust the color balance to the film. Initially, you want to bracket your exposures to first establish your exposure levels. By making up a Ruler measurement from Printer to Light Source, you'll know in the future from your detailed notes how much to move them together or apart to control your exposure. Whatever you do, do NOT use a Lamp Dimmer if using a Tungsten Lamp, since the decreased or increased voltage will not only brighten or dim the lamp but will also affect the Color Temperature throwing off all your hard efforts. Control exposure either by introducing ND Filters or by moving the camera closer or further away from the Light Source. I also suggest shooting some single frames of the print stock of the light source, without any film to print with. Vary your exposures if possible in 1/5th or 1/3rd or 1/2 Stop Increments. The smaller the variation, the better. This will be to create a Densitometric Exposure Strip which you can read out or have someone read it out for you, and plot the readings on a graph to better understand how balanced it is to the light source. This is important initially. Once this is done, and you do an actual print test from a short piece of film, you'll have greater control in color balancing it afterwards. The easiest method, if you don't want to do a Densitometric test, would be to at least, filter the light source to the Print Film as best as you can, and make exposure bracketing at least in Half Stop Increments, up to 5 above and 5 below what your light meter shows as the correct exposure setting based on an ISO 5 starting point. KODAK doesn't actually tell us their exact ISO speed of their Color Printing Film, just what the starting Additive Filter pack etc would be on a Bell & Howell Print running at 240 feet per minute. Anyhow, once you've made your little test and processed it, you can visually judge for yourself which exposure bracket increment is correct for you, and using Color Correction Viewing Filters over a Daylight Color Corrected Light Box or Daylight itself with some sort of light diffuser such as white paper or wax paper on a window, determine what your Filtration should be to correct your color. Keep in mind, that the filters then you will add will also decrease the exposure somewhat, so you'll need some adjustment for that [moving the Printer/Camera setup closer slightly to the light source. With your Ruler markings and notes, you'll know how much to estimate that. In the beginning of building your setup, you can use a hand held light meter to find what the exposure variations would be at say 1cm increment forward or back. Once you write all this down in the beginning, which ever method works to help yourself, it will be easier and faster of course to make these adjustments]. I speak from personal experience, having used these methods to duplicate film, as well as optical duplication, all in DIY setups. I also have used the B&H Printers, Densitometers, Sensitometers to make strips, and other various professional grade machinery to do this in both Still and Motion Picture Laboratory work. Just avoid making it too difficult for yourself, and you'll be rewarded as well as not being overly frustrated. If it all takes you way too much time and errors, it will be too easy to just want to give it up. That is not necessary, and that's where careful note taking will reward you so that once all the setup work and testing has been completed, you can actually get to the pleasure of printing your Color Negatives....or doing any other film duplication or inter-negative or inter-positive work.
  11. The Sodium Sulfite returns light sensitivity to the remaining unexposed Silver Halide crystals which is needed for the reversal exposure (which I'm assuming you gave it via a strong light source). The Potassium Permagenate Bleach is weaker than the older traditional Potassium Dichromate/Sulfuric Acid Bleach, so it might need longer bleaching times.....you can tell via visual inspection if the emulsion surface looks like a creamy light very light tan type color without any black metallic silver image remaining. No need to waste film in testing, just use small short lengths and use a still film processing tank such as a Nikor or Patterson tank. I still think as long as you washed the film well after the Bleach step and gave it enough light exposure, it should still react with the 2nd Developer and yield an image. Various film formulations react differently, and old film which has already lost emulsion speed will not behave nominally. Any existing Svema was definitely manufactured prior to 1992, and while it was a pretty good film in it's day, I don't think it has the sensitivity longevity of western mainstream films: Certainly a significant quality loss for modern usage after over 3 decades since it was made. Dektol is a paper developer, but can be used for film, either straight or in various dilutions. For your use, if used straight full strength, it should've yielded an image. It's a strong fast working developer, thus its formulation for the processing of B&W photographic paper. Svema is old school silver rich film, such as is Fomapan, thus the longer bleaching time on that chart. But it also has to do with the mixing strength. You can't really over bleach, but if the bleach is getting older, it is possible to stain the film yellow. It's really important to do the Clearing Bath step. I fully rinse the film well between all steps, and washing well after the Bleach step minimizes wear on the Clearing Bath. If you can't get the Sodium Sulfite at your local chemist, you might be able to get it from a swimming pool supplier. All kinds of chemicals are used to maintain pool water PH. I'm sure though it's available in England, since I lived over there and we used both KODAK and ILFORD chemistry. I know how difficult it is getting analog materials from modern High Street camera shops that seem to cater to the digital world. Just contact a film lab and ask where they get their chemistry from, or perhaps they'd be willing to sell you a small amount for personal use since they tend to buy in bulk anyhow. Hope you can sort something out.
  12. It doesn't have to be a NIZO to get into and enjoy Super 8mm. I began with various simple and low end cameras. These days you can buy a relatively high end camera from other brands for low cost. CHINON made more Super 8mm cameras than any other manufacturer in the world. They even made some for NIZO, BOLEX, AGFA, BOOTS, Wards, SEARS, PORST, Revue, Noris, GAF, EUMIG and others. The GAF Anscomatic ST-xxx series are very well made, can still be repaired and are sturdy cameras with sharp lenses. These often sell quite cheap. The ST-601/602/801/802/1000/1001/1002 models all offer 24fps as well and were considered their 'pro' series models. Although having serviced many over the years, the internal workings are quite similar if not identical and are built like tanks. The ST-100/101/101E/111/111E are very much the same as the others mentioned above, but do not have 24fps, rather 12fps, 18fps and either 36fps or 48fps. Since I prefer to shoot and project at 18fps, which in my long experience is gentler on the film and allows often times a steadier image, longer run time in the camera [3min 20sec vs 2min 30sec], these are fine for my needs. You can find any of these models in the $15 to $50 price range, sometimes higher depending on how outfitted. Most of the time the eyecups are missing, the rubber CHINON used turned to a gooey mess with age, which affects their own CHINON branded models as well as all the others they made. I have found that after market eyecups work well, and I like using the BOLEX H-8/H-16 eyecups, but others work fine also. Here's some links to current eBay listings: The one here is at $29.99 and includes free shipping within the USA. This is the 8:1 zoom range version. https://www.ebay.com/itm/Vintage-GAF-ST-802-Super-8-Movie-Camera-8mm-As-Is-Untested/123728402716?hash=item1ccec9991c:g:vNoAAOSwukRcq6sn:sc:USPSPriority!12901!US!-1 This one below is at $12.99 plus $20 for shipping. It has the original eyecup which is a mess, but that's good because then the retaining ring is still there, easy enough to remove, take off the old eyecup, clean up the area of any goo, and install a new one on. It comes with the original Instruction Manual as well. This is the 6:1 zoom range version. https://www.ebay.com/itm/Vintage-GAF-ST-602-Super-8-Movie-Camera-with-Chinon-Reflex-Lens-F-8-48MM-book/303191794396?hash=item4697a3a2dc:g:d~sAAOSw3MpaxSej This one is a tank of a camera, heavy with that 10:1 zoom lens on it. Incidently the version of this made under the Porst and Noris names had lap dissolve and a couple other functions that this GAF badged version doesn't. Even so, at $59 it's a bargain. Most of these cameras work, or you can get them working if they have frozen up a bit from sitting for decades. All the gears are heavy duty, metal and nylon, most everything can be serviced. In fact, I have gotten every single one I have bought off eBay to work. Some just needed cleaning up of the electrical contacts. The last one I bought had a loose body shell cover, requiring disassembly to sort it out, so while in there, clean up other areas and check things out.....it was only $2.00! Of course due to weight the shipping was another $12 but that is not the price, and we all have to pay for shipping usually. CHINON made some smaller ST models for GAF and some of those are pretty good also. The nice thing about the ST series is that all of them have Manual Exposure setting with the aperture scale in the viewfinder. So even if the light meter isn't working....or you can't get the right battery, you can use them fine without meter power...it's a mechanical linkage to the aperture. They have Single Frame, Remote, Run Lock, Flash Synch, Slow Motion with an instant lever or switch. Some have a pistol grip, others have that odd angled grip which makes a great carry handle as well. These are not XL type cameras, but using the 12fps speed I have been able to film in fairly low light with the higher speed filmstocks, such as the former EKTACHROME 160 and Tri-X B&W, so Color Neg, that fast ISO 200 AGFA if any is still around, would all work fine. I have always advocated that Super 8 filmers own a few cameras...a small pocket type for travel use, a nice one for more serious stuff, an XL type for low light use, and a beater to tape to cars, bikes etc for more risky shots. Well, plenty to think about here before you make the plunge!
  13. If using a B&W Reversal film that has that internal antihalation layer, it's usually dissovled in the Bleach stage. Processing it as B&W Neg, I would first wash/soak the film for 1-2 minutes minimum, the Bleach preferably with a Dichromate Bleach formula, but you could also use an E-6 Color Reversal process Bleach. The bleach only affects black metallic silver which has not formed yet, since the film has not been developed. Rinse the film well, at least 3 to 5 minutes in running water, or at least a dozen water changes with agitation per change lasting 1 minute minimum. Then go about processing the film as a Negative normally. Since the antihalation layer has now been broken down by the Bleach, the exposed silver halides will convert normally to black metallic silver, and all soluables will convert out in the Fixer and then be removed by the final wash. This is exactly what has to be done for those wanting to Negative Process the FOMAPAN R-100 Reversal filmstock. FOMA does make a Negative version which would be easier to use, but I'm not sure if they are offering that in movie film formats.
  14. Starting exposure can be determined with a light meter, since you'll know the filmspeed, minus any filtration, and the shutterspeed (use either 8fps or 12fps, if you need to cut the exposure down more vary the light source or use ND filtration Wratter type filter material over the front of the camera. Using a Dichroic Light Head from a color photo enlarger will allow more accurate color filtration control. Due to the work involved here, I recommend setting up your own Control Strips, using a short length of exposed/processed film that was carefully shot and exposed in correct color temp lighting of color chart with gray strips, and splice in a short length of similar type film to dupe. This entire 'test' run doesn't need to be any longer than 5ft to 10ft. If you use an old video camera which has infrared viewing, you can use that on a tripod to observe loading in the dark, so there won't be any fogging from loading; unloading can be done in the dark easier or in a film changing bag. Once processed, you can either plot out your readouts from a densitometer, and/or color correct using viewing filters and work it out that way. With careful note taking, and splicing leader onto the film to be duplicated, you can 'inch' the film in the camera right up to the very first frame of the rawstock/film to dupe, bipack, and then using your notes, and observing the footage frame counters, you can stop the camera and make exposure and/or filter changes at those points. Going even more complex, you could do fades etc. Running the camera at the slower frame rate allows the bipack film to move more easily thru. I also recommend wiping the film gate and pressure plate with a soft cotton flannel cloth that has been moistened with Silicone. This will alleviate any drag on the bipacked film running thru the camera, should you have any issues at all.
  15. Lots of great advice from several folks, really nice to see such helpful comments. For film splicing, unless you have sweaty hands issue, I would just go and wash my hands really well and dry them off well, and make sure they are dry before editing. There are cotton gloves and there are cotton gloves......the better ones allow better dexterity and fit snuggly and also have elastic wrists so they don't slip. I also shoot film primarily for projection. I do suggest these days making a digital backup prior to lots of projection. There are some good film cleaner lubricants out there, and the industrial standard that is used a lot these days is FilmGuard. This has allowed scratch free clean projection of 35mm film prints to extend from the so-called standard run of 300 times to over 1200 times. Although this stuff tends to stay 'wet' on the film so I would only use it on a final fully edited and well spliced final film project. It also has the ability to minimize scratches and tram lines showing so in digital transfer, it would offer the benefits of something more like wet-gate transfer. For Titles, there is so much you can do to make really cool analog titles! One of my favorite methods is to shoot background footage just for titles, such as time lapse clouds etc. Then projecting this via rear projection onto a large milky glass thick plate glass (I have tried various ground glass pieces but there are issues, so unless you can avoid using the main projection lamp and go to LED or a less brilliant light source or cut the light down more, it'll be too bright), anyhow, then using transfer letters rubbed onto document protectors and taped in front of the milky glass plate. This way you can use a variety of fonts. Just mark the corners of the plate glass so you know where to put the title 'cards' each time, make sure the mirror you use is front surface, but not always necessary unless the moving background is sharply delineated. You could also use 35mm slides taken just for your backgrounds. Refilming this with the rear projection will cause some out of synch strobing, but it's slight if you use an XL type Super 8mm camera with a 220 to 230 degree shutter opening and film at 18fps while running the projector also at 18fps. Otherwise, if you want a perfect synch, you'd have to use a fully working ELMO GS-1200 with its ESS setting and a pulse synch generator putting out signal from the Flash Synch terminal on your Super 8mm camera. Also, building a title setup, you can use a darkened room in which the title setup is lit from behind if translucent or front lit, and use a long zoom lens camera, then you can do a zoom in from where the title is very tiny to it filling the frame, for a neat effect. Watch some old films and see how their titles look to get some ideas for making your own. I think it's fun and rewarding, and certainly different than anything digitally generated these days. However, it is possible to design some digitally and then refilm those titles off your monitor using again a XL type camera since with the longer shutter opening any strobing is minimal to none. You can also film as slower than 18fps, in which case you won't see any enough to be bothersome. Scrolling is nice also and can be done with paper titles rolled up and either filmed in real time movement or single framed. And then there's drums which you can put lettering or titles on and rotate for a different look. Years ago there was a nifty unit called the "CINEGRAPHICA Super Imposing Titler" made in Australia which allowed rear projection, mixing of sources and title cards to make interesting titles. There's so many ways to make unique and interesting titles, even those shot on location, using beach sand, stones, sticks, bottles and even childrens' alphabet blocks which could also all be animated using stop motion. Have fun!
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